Improved hygiene and better nutrition were factors that contributed to improved health. The disease pattern in Norway changed from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases and chronic diseases as cardiovascular disease. Inequalities and social differences are still present in public health in Norway today. In the infant mortality rate was 2. For girls it was 2. Higher education in Norway is offered by a range of seven universities , five specialised colleges, 25 university colleges as well as a range of private colleges.
Public education is virtually free, regardless of nationality. The ultimate responsibility for the education lies with the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. The Norwegian farm culture continues to play a role in contemporary Norwegian culture. In the 19th century, it inspired a strong romantic nationalistic movement, which is still visible in the Norwegian language and media. Norwegian culture blossomed with nationalist efforts to achieve an independent identity in the areas of literature, art and music. This continues today in the performing arts and as a result of government support for exhibitions, cultural projects and artwork.
Norway has been considered a progressive country, which has adopted legislation and policies to support women's rights, minority rights, and LGBT rights. From the s, gender equality also came high on the state agenda, with the establishment of a public body to promote gender equality, which evolved into the Gender Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud. Civil society organisations also continue to play an important role, and the women's rights organisations are today organised in the Norwegian Women's Lobby umbrella organisation.
In , the Norwegian constitution was amended to grant absolute primogeniture to the Norwegian throne, meaning that the eldest child, regardless of gender, takes precedence in the line of succession. As it was not retroactive, the current successor to the throne is the eldest son of the King, rather than his eldest child. The Norwegian constitution Article 6 states that "For those born before the year it shall In regard to LGBT rights, Norway was the first country in the world to enact an anti-discrimination law protecting the rights of gays and lesbians.
In , Norway became the second country to legalise civil union partnerships for same-sex couples, and on 1 January Norway became the sixth country to grant full marriage equality to same-sex couples. As a promoter of human rights, Norway has held the annual Oslo Freedom Forum conference, a gathering described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum.
The Norwegian cinema has received international recognition. The documentary film Kon-Tiki won an Academy Award. In , Arne Skouen 's Nine Lives was nominated, but failed to win. The film was released in and is based on characters from Norwegian cartoonist Kjell Aukrust. It is the most widely seen Norwegian film of all time. Since the s, the film industry has thrived, producing up to 20 feature films each year. It included a memorable battle in the snow. The attraction and the film ceased their operations on 5 October The classical music of the romantic composers Edvard Grieg , Rikard Nordraak and Johan Svendsen is internationally known, as is the modern music of Arne Nordheim.
Norwegian black metal , a form of rock music in Norway , has been an influence in world music since the late 20th century. Since the s, Norway's export of black metal , a lo-fi, dark and raw form of heavy metal , has been developed by such bands as Emperor , Darkthrone , Gorgoroth , Mayhem , Burzum , and Immortal.
More recently bands such as Enslaved , Kvelertak , Dimmu Borgir and Satyricon have evolved the genre into the present day while still garnering worldwide fans. Controversial events associated with the black metal movement in the early s included several church burnings and two prominent murder cases. The jazz scene in Norway is thriving. Norway has a strong folk music tradition which remains popular to this day. In the s and s, the group maintained its popularity domestically, and has remained successful outside Norway, especially in Germany, Switzerland, France, and Brazil.
In recent years, various Norwegian songwriters and production teams have contributed to the music of other international artists. Lene Marlin has written songs for Rihanna and Lovebugs. Norway enjoys many music festivals throughout the year, all over the country. Norway is the host of one of the world's biggest extreme sport festivals with music, Ekstremsportveko —a festival held annually in Voss.
Oslo used to have a summer parade similar to the German Love Parade. Even in its first year, "Musikkens Dag" gathered thousands of people and artists in the streets of Oslo. The arrival of Christianity around the year brought Norway into contact with European mediaeval learning, hagiography and history writing. Merged with native oral tradition and Icelandic influence, this influenced the literature written in the late 12th and early 13th centuries.
Little Norwegian literature came out of the period of the Scandinavian Union and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian union — , with some notable exceptions such as Petter Dass and Ludvig Holberg. During the union with Denmark, the government imposed using only written Danish, which decreased the writing of Norwegian literature. Two major events precipitated a major resurgence in Norwegian literature: in a Norwegian university was established in Christiania. Secondly, seized by the spirit of revolution following the American and French revolutions, the Norwegians created their first Constitution in Kielland's novels and short stories are mostly naturalistic.
Although an important contributor to early romantic nationalism, especially Peer Gynt , Henrik Ibsen is better known for his pioneering realistic dramas such as The Wild Duck and A Doll's House. They caused an uproar because of his candid portrayals of the middle classes, complete with infidelity, unhappy marriages, and corrupt businessmen. In the 20th century, Norwegian academics have been pioneering in many social sciences , including criminology , sociology and peace and conflict studies. They won the prize for their groundbreaking work identifying the cells that make up a positioning system in the human brain, our "in-built GPS".
With expansive forests, Norway has long had a tradition of building in wood. Many of today's most interesting new buildings are made of wood, reflecting the strong appeal that this material continues to hold for Norwegian designers and builders. With Norway's conversion to Christianity some 1, years ago, churches were built. Stonework architecture was introduced from Europe for the most important structures, beginning with the construction of Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. In the early Middle Ages , wooden stave churches were constructed throughout Norway.
Some of them have survived; they represent Norway's most unusual contribution to architectural history. Another notable example of wooden architecture is the buildings at Bryggen Wharf in Bergen, also on the list for World Cultural Heritage sites, consisting of a row of tall, narrow wooden structures along the quayside. The city Kongsberg had a church built in the Baroque style. After Norway's union with Denmark was dissolved in , Oslo became the capital. The architect Christian H. Grosch designed the earliest parts of the University of Oslo , the Oslo Stock Exchange , and many other buildings and churches constructed in that early national period.
The s, when functionalism dominated, became a strong period for Norwegian architecture. It is only since the late 20th century that Norwegian architects have achieved international renown.
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For an extended period, the Norwegian art scene was dominated by artwork from Germany and Holland as well as by the influence of Copenhagen. It was in the 19th century that a truly Norwegian era began, first with portraits, later with impressive landscapes. Johan Christian Dahl — , originally from the Dresden school, eventually returned to paint the landscapes of western Norway, defining Norwegian painting for the first time. Norway's newly found independence from Denmark encouraged painters to develop their Norwegian identity, especially with landscape painting by artists such as Kitty Kielland , a female painter who studied under Hans Gude , and Harriet Backer , another pioneer among female artists, influenced by impressionism.
Frits Thaulow , an impressionist, was influenced by the art scene in Paris as was Christian Krohg , a realist painter, famous for his paintings of prostitutes. Lefse is a Norwegian potato flatbread, usually topped with large amounts of butter and sugar, most common around Christmas. And the most popular pastry among all population is vaffel.
País de entrega
It is different from Belgian in taste and consistency and is served with sour cream, brown cheese, butter and sugar, or strawberry or raspberry jam, which can all be mixed or eaten separately. Sports are a central part of Norwegian culture, and popular sports include association football, handball , biathlon , cross-country skiing , ski jumping , speed skating , and, to a lesser degree, ice hockey. Association football is the most popular sport in Norway in terms of active membership. In — polling, football ranked far behind biathlon and cross-country skiing in terms of popularity as spectator sports.
The men's national football team has participated three times in the FIFA World Cup , , and , and once in the European Championship The highest FIFA ranking Norway has achieved is 2nd, a position it has held twice, in and in Chess is also gaining popularity in Norway. Magnus Carlsen is the current world champion. Bandy is a traditional sport in Norway and the country is one of the four founders of Federation of International Bandy. In terms of licensed athletes, it is the second biggest winter sport in the world.
Norway first participated at the Olympic Games in , and has sent athletes to compete in every Games since then, except for the sparsely attended Games and the Summer Olympics in Moscow when they participated in the American-led boycott. Norway leads the overall medal tables at the Winter Olympic Games with considerable margin. The main attractions of Norway are the varied landscapes that extend across the Arctic Circle. It is famous for its fjord-indented coastline and its mountains, ski resorts, lakes and woods.
Much of the nature of Norway remains unspoiled, and thus attracts numerous hikers and skiers. The fjords, mountains and waterfalls in Western and Northern Norway attract several hundred thousand foreign tourists each year. In the cities, cultural idiosyncrasies such as the Holmenkollen ski jump attract many visitors, as do landmarks such as Bergen's Bryggen and Oslo's Vigeland Sculpture Park.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Norway disambiguation. Country in Northern Europe. Coat of arms. Show globe. Show map of Europe. Northern Lule Southern. Kven Romani Romanes . Does not include Svalbard and Jan Mayen. With the territories, it is the 67th largest country at ,  square kilometers This percentage is for the mainland, Svalbard, and Jan Mayen. This percentage counts glaciers as "land". It's calculated as 19, Main articles: History of Norway and History of Scandinavia. Main article: Scandinavian prehistory.
Main article: Nordic Bronze Age. Main article: Iron Age Scandinavia. Main article: Migration period. See also: Petty kingdoms of Norway. Main article: Viking Age. Viking swords found in Norway, preserved at the Bergen Museum. Main article: Kingdom of Norway — See also: Greater Norway and Civil war era in Norway. Main article: Kalmar Union. Main article: Denmark—Norway. Main article: United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway. See also: Norwegian protectorate and Norwegian romantic nationalism.
Main articles: Union dissolution referendum and Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden. Main articles: Geography of Norway and Geology of Norway.
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Main article: Wildlife of Norway. The Arctic fox has its habitat in high elevation ranges on the mainland as well as on Svalbard. Muskox in the low alpine tundra at Dovrefjell National Park. Main articles: Politics of Norway and Law of Norway. See also: Norwegian parliamentary election, Largest cities or towns in Norway According to Statistics Des. Main article: Judiciary of Norway. Main article: Foreign relations of Norway. Main article: Norwegian Armed Forces. Main article: Demographics of Norway.
Main articles: Languages of Norway and Norwegian dialects. Main articles: Norwegian diaspora and Norwegian Americans.
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Main article: Architecture of Norway. Main article: Norwegian art. Main article: Norwegian cuisine. See also: Football in Norway. Main article: Tourism in Norway. See also: Tourist attractions in Norway. Main article: International rankings of Norway. Norway portal Arctic portal. Kartverket, mapping directory for Norway. Retrieved 22 March Statistics Norway. Retrieved 16 March International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 7 March United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 September Polar Research Board Antarctic treaty system: an assessment.
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