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Submit documents to WikiLeaks. There have been changes, too, in the cultural ethos of the match day. The local works band has given way to popular records played over the public address system. The "strips" worn by the players and which are associated with salient matches in the subculture's collective memories have been altered - a change which has no obvious functions other than to symbolise the overall cultural changes. He further reasoned that football fans came in three forms: the member, the customer or the consumer.
To elaborate, King a;  points out that many of the lads found it difficult to keep up with increasing match-day ticket costs and are strongly opposed both the changes of football grounds to all-seater stadia.
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The lads also stressed deep rooted familial ties to the club, typically talking about how their older family members once carried out many of the same activities that they do. Hence, their love of the club also entails a collective self-worship of their activities. Both Robson and King used the producers and consumers of club-based fanzines to make their arguments.
Winning the Match but Losing the Game? Fans are no longer shrugging their shoulders, they are walking away. Now they are being backed up by facts — a proliferation of empty seats across many Premiership grounds and double digit decreases in the numbers of armchair fans watching on TV.
Although sometimes less obvious, the Liverpool fanzines also reflected this attitude. Indeed, five major frames were typically used across the fanzine data which were more frequently used when the supported club was either experiencing a moment of further commercialisationxvii or undergoing a run of form which was below the standard it normally achieved. What the fuck has it got to do with us? Never mind that the total cost in terms of lost wages etc. Until last month who ever heard of a night game kicking off as early as 7. Their accounts suggested that many supporters blame the replacement of terraces with all-seater stadiums as the root cause of this and this has been reframed to, again, suggest that this has produced less authentic forms of fandom with many new supporters preferring to sit rather than stand and chant.
And when it does happen, as it surely will, our club will start to resemble OUR club once again, as opposed to the identity-less, spirit-less, cynical, tourist attraction that it has become — a policy that has been so shamelessly stepped up, as though it were a Soviet Five Year Plan, since January 20th This is evidenced by Veg. How are supporters of tomorrow going to be indoctrinated in to going to Old Trafford if the cost of the game for a family of four is in excess of fifty pounds.
Finally, at Manchester United, many traditional supporters have expressed concerned at their perception that football players are increasingly likely to lack passion for the club and have argued that this is a direct result of the increasing salaries that players are paid. Football is about identity, roots community and is an extension of your family and sense of belonging. Knackas from Yorkshire climbing on buses to go to Old Trafford. They are an aberration. Chelsea will be hovering up that tendency in the next few seasons. As such, an imagined geography emerges which comes — at least in part — to define authenticity amongst the group.
This geography is largely based upon hailing from, or laying some sort of cultural or biographical link to the town or city in which the supported football club is located. The name of the movement suggests that it is very much based around the locale of Liverpool but to be part of the community, fans have to understand their unwritten rules. Hence fans have to be indoctrinated into a cultural code of traditional support: It [KFS] tells us that traditional fans are tired of the way the game is going; how their traditions have been eroded. How they are feeling alienated by clubs who will chase ANY fan, regardless of their loyalty or strength of allegiance.
Indeed, some fans used the campaign to genuinely exclude non-Liverpool based supporters. DO bring flags banners and scarves to the match. George Cross crap that any club in England has. DO honour, respect and remember the Hillsborough disaster and those who died on April 15th DO support the city of Liverpool and its people. This is important to traditional Liverpool supporters to whom the collective memory of the Hillsborough disaster is still prominent because in its immediate aftermath the Sun falsely reported that Liverpool supporters stole from the corpses of dead fans and urinated on their bodies see Scraton Cup tie that was televised by the BBC in January A hint of this is found in the following communication between two F.
United supporters on its unofficial Internet messageboard: F. United fan : Right you MRE [Manchester Road End] jesters - when you join us in the mainstand again tonight none of "we've taken over your stand" nonsense. United fan : Got me flask sorted, just doing butties now to put in tupperware box, This communication evidenced this point. You would literally die for the club and your loyalty knows no bounds! Amongst traditional supporters, there may be an inference that such fans — who would never refer to themselves as JCLs — are less authentic in their fandom and over compensate by falsely overemphasising their commitment.
If you could talk on Sunday morning you are a JCL Portsmouth fan : Problem is when you mix people who like to stand with those who don't. Should this Pompey fan be dismissed because she is old? We wouldn't have the problem if the authorities saw sense and we could have some terracing back. Portsmouth fan : Agreed Portsmouth fan . My point was mainly about the amount of support you give to the team when you are there, not how many games you go to determining if you are a JCL. I think they should seriously discuss standing areas for those who want it. Found on www. Hence the term JCL is used by supporters in different ways as a derogatory label for those who fall outside their fan community.
These traditional fans have a strong belief that the club culturally belongs to them, and as Taylor ; a argued, have a belief that it had a strong community ethos at an often unspecified point in the past even if historical accounts do not always support this idea. For such supporters, their keen following of the club has become meshed up with their notions of self-identification and belonging.
Resultantly, traditional supporters try to wrestle their club away from which ever forces they perceive it having been taken by. Yet, such fans did not oppose all manifestations of the business of sport, particularly if they suited their own interests. Locality has also become an important force in deciding the authenticity of supporters who may be challenging traditional fans for access to treasured commodities, such as match tickets.
The next chapter helps to build up the picture of committed forms of fandom by looking at the most spatially distant groups, who are the overseas supporters. What about the fan that emigrated in the s that still gets up at 2am to see matches live on TV? Or a fan that moves to a town and starts supporting the local club? Or the fan that moves there and retains an affinity with where they used to live?
The answer, easily enough, is that all of them are potentially fans. They feel elation upon victory, dejection after defeat, and depression and shame follow on from relegation. This chapter will therefore look at fan identifications from Scandinavia, East Asia and the U. Unpacking Transnational Fandom Despite countries across the world broadcasting EPL matches see Chapter Two , research on overseas fans is relatively sparse.
For instance, Armstrong and Mitchell have reported that in , the broadcasting company Rediffusion offered Maltese listeners the BBC as one of two radio channels, which mean that English football matches were broadcast from the s. Across the s, television exposure grew exponentially as subscription football channels were launched and by there was a channel wholly dedicated to EPL football with a further two given over to Italian and British sports channels.
Indeed, Armstrong and Mitchell pointed out that since the s small numbers of Maltese fans have travelled to English football grounds to watch matches. Kelly 47 broadened this point when he contended that the relative lowering of the cost of trans-European air-travel and transnational televised coverage of the EPL meant supporters who resided outside the U. Such arguments could also be applied to Manchester United: A MORI poll commissioned by United themselves in suggested there may be as many as seventy-five million people round the world who hold some level of affection for the club.
Huge numbers of those seem to fetch up at Manchester airport the morning after matches, when a teeming polyglot of support swirls through security checks and packs the airside retail experiences. United supporters come from anywhere and everywhere. A keenness for everything red is, apparently, shared by In Ireland, an estimated 1. White 4 Globally leading EPL clubs are not alone in possessing a transnational supporter-base: Carlin and Burns point out that Real Madrid and Barcelona share this appeal.
Such fans are not uniform, with some — like those that Dave Boyle referred to - being migrants from the U. However, questions about why fans follow their club and what they actually believe they are supporting in this commitment are not answered by showing the historical growth in availability of EPL matches across the world. His main findings have been collated in Table 6. Ability to watch the team play due to media coverage 3.
Mean generated from a likert scale , where lower scores indicate lower levels of agreement. Although neither fan club explicitly followed EPL teams, the findings can be reasonably generalised to consider the cultural processes and identification that English ex-patriots around the world face and adopt in their continued support of EPL teams.
Unlike the satellite fans, these supporters were exclusively socialised into supporting a team before they moved away from Scotland. First, they preserved their original cultural practices and meanings, thereby not reflecting the host culture; second — and alternatively - they may have accommodated or absorbed the practices and cultures of the host society; third, they may have mixed original and host cultures to produce hybridised social values and meanings and fourth, some fans could have abandoned their original cultures in favour of those from their new surroundings.
In fact, they found that in many cases, supporter cultures were contradictory in that they blended several of these seemingly oppositional values Giulianotti and Robertson As a result, all but the first group altered their views on what football support signified to them. Thus in summary, the literature on transnational fandom does not represent one uniform argument and there are clearly differences in the cultural practices and significations between — and probably within — overseas groups and whilst recognising that some fans from outside the U.
Whilst holding these ideas, the chapter will now move on to explore some of the cultural interpretations of what it means to support a football team amongst fan groups in Scandinavia, East Asia and the U. Reimer posited that the largest supporter clubs are devoted to EPL clubs, but he also stated that there is Scandinavian support for English clubs at all levels of its league system. Second, the energetic and fast paced - but not advanced skilled - nature of English football lent itself very well to the Scandinavian supporters who regularly imagined themselves as able to compete at such a level.
Third, English football supporter culture appeared the most vibrant across Europe with pictures of singing crowds beamed across the television airways to Scandinavian audiences. This has led to further identification with these clubs in the region Hognestad ; ; Nash Reimer contends that the first of these was followed Manchester City established in These numbers have further grown in recent years.
Hognestad conducted a survey to question why Norwegians choose to support English football clubs and found different results to Kerr But me and my pals seldom went on the organised trips. We wanted something else from our football interest than sitting in safety with Swedish tourists. We did not go with the coach to White Hart Lane. We took the tube together with the real fans [emphasis in the original text]. Additionally, he argued that 67 per cent of active Scandinavian football visitors would consider taking such action, along with 33 per cent of those yet to travel.
I found similar sentiments from a Norwegian Liverpool fan: Despite the fact that I come from a happy family, we never took a holiday in England. Anyway, since October , I have visited the country eight times on my own initiative the first time I did so alone. Most of the tours have been football tours, but I have been to England twice without going to the match. To paraphrase a famous quote "I have a dream". My dream is to move from Flekkefjord, and my friends, family and job, where I enjoy an excellent life in the small southern town and to move to England and Liverpool to see them at close range.
My dream is to be taught Scouse, go to matches week after week, become familiar with local life and explore life outside the church. Those in Norway will have to miss what I take for granted. I will simply move to Liverpool! Yet, these seemed small prices to pay in order to live close to his adopted football club and demonstrate his loyalty to it.
Do we really know enough about what really happens, or has drawn a hasty conclusion? Tom Hicks will soon talk to the media. I look forward to this with an open mind, because I do not feel that we can rely on the information that has come to now. Bombastic speeches notwithstanding , we had the two gentlemen in record time. Uncertainty whether they had understood the magnitude of their investment, we feared that Americans pure thought they had bought a brand name, not a football club - Liverpool Football Club.
They had experience with the U. Not so with our club.
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For some it may be a lack of player signings. For some there may be uncertainty about the stadium, but for us main reason poor leadership […]. Ever since the very idea of a protest campaign was launched at kopforum response has been enormous. There is established a group on Facebook, which is approaching members. The feedback we have received through various channels, in Norway, and also from Liverpool, shows that there is life in such a protest. Unlike Americans, we care, we have always done.
We want our loved ones back. The only issue has been whether to use the time of the match to protest. We understand the scepticism towards doing this. We are also aware that exceed the minutes are used to honour the 96 [people who died during the Hillsborough disaster].
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This is still an insignificant, friendly country: a small country that fortunately is populated by almost 30, Liverpool fans. Now none of us have any ambitions to be violent. The point is that it is high time to stand up and say enough is enough. To succeed with this, we see it as an imperative that action is taken during match time. This interest had been preceded by a number of the most successful EPL teams playing local teams on increasingly frequent tours across the transnational region.
The purpose of this section is to consider how the cultural understandings of English football in East Asia and the United States. This was a different interpretation of a football club badge to that shared across most people in the U. It is widely reported that some followers of Islam in Malaysia were divided by the request. For instance, Malaysian-based Muslim — and Manchester United supporter — Azman The Man immediately stated on his blog: They [the Muslim clerics] are just worried that we become devil worshipers as they are religious leaders — what would you expect them to say?
It is the same word but has a different understanding. Manutd fans in Malaysia will still wear the jersey. Not many people will take it seriously; they know that it is just a football club and nothing related to devil worship at all. Rather, the symbol was read as a connection to a football club. This is different to the U.
However, Miller , Silk and Chumley and Denison have all suggested that this interest has gradually increased. All but the latter are American-born. It is too simplistic to argue that the group wholly consume games through the media as on rare occasions a member of the chapter will visit Anfield to watch a live game. The group appeared united in their belief that it is better to watch a match at a football stadium than on television.
Podcasts are normally recorded in the back room of an Irish themed public house in which the Chapter meets to watch games. Group members also regaled stories detailing the content of Liverpool football-themed Internet messageboard threads they have read and participated in, often making a point of telling listeners that they chose to use the forums that Liverpool-based fans post upon. Although the supporters appeared to understand the cultural webs of significance of local rivalry c. Geertz , one area they differed from British based fans who showed similar levels of commitment was through their understanding of other EPL teams.
Erm, um. The young Spanish kid? One of the relegated teams. Was it? Who was the team that went down after six weeks? All: Derby. Derek Abell: Is it the Derby winger? Now, I only saw him four or five times, once against us but he looked good. The Texas Boot Room 18, 13 May Thus, Derek Abell had wrongly identified his club including its status and his nationality.
Such misconceptions were not unusual amongst the group — although they all displayed a strong knowledge of current Liverpool players in even the youth teams — they often struggled to remember opposition players.
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In the Texan context, the label is used as an award for those that were seen to make strong commitments to follow the club. For simply put, getting involved in something that you completely under estimated the effort and the passion. You name it, they under estimated [it]. Someone sort it out, get it done, stop dragging this club through the mud. So, um, so this award goes to the two American owners that really set us back a bit, I believe. And the booty goes to? They have eroded our foundations. The Texas Boot Room 19, 20 May This issue did not emerge within the fan voices of those examined from Scandinavia, East Asia and the United States.
A wealth of literature in the field shows a multiplicity of fandom, which involve differing levels of both club attachment and ways of consuming events. Football fandom is effectively the shared meaning that is taken from the sport or a particular club, yet these interpretations and values are social across members within a group who come to define it. This closeness may be propelled through the Internet and, particularly, the widespread development of Web Discussions around global cultures of supporters of English football are particularly important in an era where EPL games are broadcast to countries and the gap in direct financial value between international and domestic broadcasting agreements is rapidly closing, with the league becoming a truly global competition see Chapter Two.
By using fan discourses across the world some of the cultural issues - which will continue to emerge in the subsequent chapters on fan mobilisations in the global-local nexus - have been discussed. Begs the question what does he have to hide? And what does he want from United? And finally what happens when he passes away? After all he is When Malcolm Glazer and his family seized control of Manchester United, they leveraged much of the acquisition debt back on to the club.
This prompted some fan groups to mobilise. Whilst Crowther may have exaggerated, the purchase created consternation amongst many supporters and divided opinions about what course of action should be taken Brown ; Cup final. Wimbledon, and the journalist David Conn. Only the final suggestion was carried forward with any conviction as some supporters galvanised and setup F. Castells ; Thus, Brown argued that in the light of the Glazer takeover and the formation of F. United, attitudes toward Manchester United took one of five possible directions.
First, there were those who continued to attend Manchester United matches as they had before the events in May whilst alternatively, there were those who completely boycotted Manchester United and either began to support F. From there, some fans became hostile to the club, whilst many others were simply disinterested in the way Manchester United developed. Supporter accounts in these publications showed a number of concerns about the planned takeover, such as raised ticket prices, an over-mediatisation of games, the breakup of the EPL collective broadcasting agreement and conflict of interest within the club whereby Murdoch would deliberately not fund player transfers if Manchester United continued to be successful.
This chapter will discuss both protests.
Goffman pioneered frame analysis by looking at the ways in which individuals organise their experiences into meaningful activities and settle on a clear definition of their reality. The results Table 8. Instead, the vast majority of discourses over 90 per cent opposed his takeover, with the remainder offering a counter defence against some of the reasons for the antagonism. The discourses that countered the unease at the takeover were far fewer, but were dominated by the argument that the on-the-pitch fortunes would not be diminished as they are needed to sustain sponsorship and other revenues.
At the time of the takeover, Manchester United was in protracted contract talks with defender Rio Ferdinand. The discourses which emerged in the light of the takeover were not new to May , and had at least been building during the two years that Glazer had been investing in the club.
However, evidence from fans in Table 8. However, the key qualitative difference to previous eras is that — like Wimbledon fans in — some Manchester United fans felt so disenchanted that they established their own football club. Number Percentage to 2 d. Against the Glazer family takeover In order to gain support, and not alienate potential fans, F.
By adopting this stance, it sought to capture the interest of people across the wide spectrum of the fractured community of Manchester United fans. Adam Brown ; has led the way in publishing about the fan struggles connected the Glazer takeover of Manchester United and the establishment of F. As an F. United board member and long-standing I. United, his analysis may overstate the impacts that the new football club has on the sporting and other socio- cultural landscape see Gamson  ; second, as a leader of the social movement, who typically draws upon participant observation as a data source, there is a possibility that Brown assumes that all — or even just a large number — of F.
United supporters share the motivations and interpretations of events that he and his fellow board members possess. This contrasted with the EPL environment where players and fans do not generally mix. United by arguing that some supporters had become disloyal to the parent club.
Alongside this, there is a level of dissidence toward F. Support and try to possibly help change things where possible. However, Andy Hall accused some F. United or at least do not attend games at Old Trafford. United are now just another opposing club. However, Brown argued that these become the symbols around which largely imagined supporter groups coalesce at F.
He also posited that consumption in the form of standing, singing, drinking and other ecstatic displays together formed the cultural boundaries of the community. In the light of this, it seems that wearing of uniform colours and ritualistic carrying out of enjoyable communal activities like singing and drinking have helped F. United develop a long-term future. United supporters had not relaxed their views on Malcolm Glazer.
Indeed, during April , a rumour that Glazer had died was discussed on the messageboard and most fans seemed to celebrate this idea. For instance, F. Given that the formation of F. United has not displaced Glazer from Manchester United it may be the case that those who have ceased to watch F. United are disillusioned at the club not meeting what they perceived to be its main aim. United fan : Whilst we are all madly celebrating and jumping for joy I wonder what this will mean for FC next season?
I fear this will have an impact on attendances. The people who were on the fence are more likely to jump in with the Glazers after this. I'm still madly happy though.
It's just like a double edged sword. United fan : nah if anything this will possibly have a good impact, how often are united going to kick off at 3pm on Saturday next season?!!!! Not very often, we will always be the affordable option! The prize money will keep them out of hot water for a while. Never hugged so many strangers in my life F. All comments articulated on 21 May Similarly, across the season, many F. United fans continued to communicate messages of support for Manchester United, whereas other viewed the club through its relationship to F.
United or the Glazers. The relationship between F. United was also difficult to gauge: F. Saying that I expect the same courtesy. I get upset when we lose mainly because I want us to progress up the league. I do for two reasons, firstly I think we need to progress to survive. Fans are forking out but for how long. By progressing we get better attendances from away fans and this bumps up our gate. There are other financial benefits. My thoughts, respect them as I respect yours. United fan  : I agree with a lot of this. We're not really a real ale club consisting of a handful sandal wearing hobby-ists content to gaze into their glasses until death, or inertia, take hold - we're a football team in a competitive league.
United fan : Good post. Agreed F. United fan : If we have to rely on people coming though the gates, solely because we are successful and winning every game then there's something gone wrong here. I for one thought we had left all that behind. I understand your point when you say we need the money to survive but does that mean if we drop to say a game or less that we'll go out of business?
While we are at Gigg you may have a point, I think we need per game to make a profit, but hopefully thats not going to be the case forever. Someone said earlier about preferring to stand with true supporters than who are just there because we're winning everything. Been there, done that F. United fan : Yep as I said in the other thread, wanting us to stay as we are or where is fine, but it surely is in direct conflict with wanting to win every game. We need to get as high as possible as quickly as possible.
As someone said in another thread, if Matt Busby wanted to just get pissed every week and have a laugh we'd be supporting a very different team. United fan : I wish people would stop thinking that FC is going to be an automatic abode for those priced out of OT from here on in.
If they fancied a bit of FC they would be coming now.
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United fan : We have been pretty successful up to now? As for success - it depends on how you measure it. I would like to see progress and promotion, but my main reason is to promote supporter owned clubs as the way forward for football - so equally, I would like to see ALL supporter owned clubs making strong progress. FC have done brilliantly so far and I am confident we are in good hands. United fan : who said the team isn't successful?
After 4 wins and a draw we lost a game. It happens F. United fan : I reckon that is a really good post. It isn't where I am coming from FC wise, but as is always said people come at it from a different angle and each is as valid as the next. School Honours; p. XXIX No. Atkins, Ltd. Hinckley , Retrieved 27 May IV, —50 London, , p. Published by H. Underwood edition. Hardback p. Retrieved 14 November XII no.
April Imperial Vancouver Island. Retrieved 13 March Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 22 February Archived from the original on 11 November Archived from the original on 21 February Archived from the original on 5 July Retrieved 25 March Who was who among English and European authors, — Retrieved 19 June Chatham House. Updated by Peter Boon, Paperback, P. Underwood updated , p.
Retrieved 7 March The Crime Readers' Association. Archived from the original on 22 June Martin — British Council Literature". Retrieved 28 May Martin, April 24, —". The Eagle , vol. Rickard William Lloyd". Archived from the original on 17 October XVI, no. The Harpur Trust — Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 20 May